function B = jadeR(X,m)
% Blind separation of real signals with JADE. Version 1.5 Dec. 1997.
%
% Usage:
% * If X is an nxT data matrix (n sensors, T samples) then
% B=jadeR(X) is a nxn separating matrix such that S=B*X is an nxT
% matrix of estimated source signals.
% * If B=jadeR(X,m), then B has size mxn so that only m sources are
% extracted. This is done by restricting the operation of jadeR
% to the m first principal components.
% * Also, the rows of B are ordered such that the columns of pinv(B)
% are in order of decreasing norm; this has the effect that the
% `most energetically significant' components appear first in the
% rows of S=B*X.
%
% Quick notes (more at the end of this file)
%
% o this code is for REAL-valued signals. An implementation of JADE
% for both real and complex signals is also available from
% http://sig.enst.fr/~cardoso/stuff.html
%
% o This algorithm differs from the first released implementations of
% JADE in that it has been optimized to deal more efficiently
% 1) with real signals (as opposed to complex)
% 2) with the case when the ICA model does not necessarily hold.
%
% o There is a practical limit to the number of independent
% components that can be extracted with this implementation. Note
% that the first step of JADE amounts to a PCA with dimensionality
% reduction from n to m (which defaults to n). In practice m
% cannot be `very large' (more than 40, 50, 60... depending on
% available memory)
%
% o See more notes, references and revision history at the end of
% this file and more stuff on the WEB
% http://sig.enst.fr/~cardoso/stuff.html
%
% o This code is supposed to do a good job! Please report any
% problem to cardoso@sig.enst.fr
% Copyright : Jean-Francois Cardoso. cardoso@sig.enst.fr
verbose = 0 ; % Set to 0 for quiet operation
% Finding the number of sources
[n,T] = size(X);
if nargin==1, m=n ; end; % Number of sources defaults to # of sensors
if m>n , fprintf('jade -> Do not ask more sources than sensors here!!!\n'), return,end
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Looking for %d sources\n',m); end ;
% Self-commenting code
%=====================
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Removing the mean value\n'); end
X = X - mean(X')' * ones(1,T);
%%% whitening & projection onto signal subspace
% ===========================================
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Whitening the data\n'); end
[U,D] = eig((X*X')/T) ;
[puiss,k] = sort(diag(D)) ;
rangeW = n-m+1:n ; % indices to the m most significant directions
scales = sqrt(puiss(rangeW)) ; % scales
W = diag(1./scales) * U(1:n,k(rangeW))' ; % whitener
iW = U(1:n,k(rangeW)) * diag(scales) ; % its pseudo-inverse
X = W*X;
%%% Estimation of the cumulant matrices.
% ====================================
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Estimating cumulant matrices\n'); end
dimsymm = (m*(m+1))/2; % Dim. of the space of real symm matrices
nbcm = dimsymm ; % number of cumulant matrices
CM = zeros(m,m*nbcm); % Storage for cumulant matrices
R = eye(m); %%
Qij = zeros(m); % Temp for a cum. matrix
Xim = zeros(1,m); % Temp
Xjm = zeros(1,m); % Temp
scale = ones(m,1)/T ; % for convenience
%% I am using a symmetry trick to save storage. I should write a
%% short note one of these days explaining what is going on here.
%%
Range = 1:m ; % will index the columns of CM where to store the cum. mats.
for im = 1:m
Xim = X(im,:) ;
Qij = ((scale* (Xim.*Xim)) .* X ) * X' - R - 2 * R(:,im)*R(:,im)' ;
CM(:,Range) = Qij ;
Range = Range + m ;
for jm = 1:im-1
Xjm = X(jm,:) ;
Qij = ((scale * (Xim.*Xjm) ) .*X ) * X' - R(:,im)*R(:,jm)' - R(:,jm)*R(:,im)' ;
CM(:,Range) = sqrt(2)*Qij ;
Range = Range + m ;
end ;
end;
%%% joint diagonalization of the cumulant matrices
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%% Init
if 1, %% Init by diagonalizing a *single* cumulant matrix. It seems to save
%% some computation time `sometimes'. Not clear if initialization is
%% a good idea since Jacobi rotations are very efficient.
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Initialization of the diagonalization\n'); end
[V,D] = eig(CM(:,1:m)); % For instance, this one
for u=1:m:m*nbcm, % updating accordingly the cumulant set given the init
CM(:,u:u+m-1) = CM(:,u:u+m-1)*V ;
end;
CM = V'*CM;
else, %% The dont-try-to-be-smart init
V = eye(m) ; % la rotation initiale
end;
seuil = 1/sqrt(T)/100; % A statistically significant threshold
encore = 1;
sweep = 0;
updates = 0;
g = zeros(2,nbcm);
gg = zeros(2,2);
G = zeros(2,2);
c = 0 ;
s = 0 ;
ton = 0 ;
toff = 0 ;
theta = 0 ;
%% Joint diagonalization proper
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Contrast optimization by joint diagonalization\n'); end
while encore, encore=0;
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Sweep #%d\n',sweep); end
sweep=sweep+1;
for p=1:m-1,
for q=p+1:m,
Ip = p:m:m*nbcm ;
Iq = q:m:m*nbcm ;
%%% computation of Givens angle
g = [ CM(p,Ip)-CM(q,Iq) ; CM(p,Iq)+CM(q,Ip) ];
gg = g*g';
ton = gg(1,1)-gg(2,2);
toff = gg(1,2)+gg(2,1);
theta = 0.5*atan2( toff , ton+sqrt(ton*ton+toff*toff) );
%%% Givens update
if abs(theta) > seuil, encore = 1 ;
updates = updates + 1;
c = cos(theta);
s = sin(theta);
G = [ c -s ; s c ] ;
pair = [p;q] ;
V(:,pair) = V(:,pair)*G ;
CM(pair,:) = G' * CM(pair,:) ;
CM(:,[Ip Iq]) = [ c*CM(:,Ip)+s*CM(:,Iq) -s*CM(:,Ip)+c*CM(:,Iq) ] ;
%% fprintf('jade -> %3d %3d %12.8f\n',p,q,s);
end%%of the if
end%%of the loop on q
end%%of the loop on p
end%%of the while loop
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Total of %d Givens rotations\n',updates); end
%%% A separating matrix
% ===================
B = V'*W ;
%%% We permut its rows to get the most energetic components first.
%%% Here the **signals** are normalized to unit variance. Therefore,
%%% the sort is according to the norm of the columns of A = pinv(B)
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Sorting the components\n',updates); end
A = iW*V ;
[vars,keys] = sort(sum(A.*A)) ;
B = B(keys,:);
B = B(m:-1:1,:) ; % Is this smart ?
% Signs are fixed by forcing the first column of B to have
% non-negative entries.
if verbose, fprintf('jade -> Fixing the signs\n',updates); end
b = B(:,1) ;
signs = sign(sign(b)+0.1) ; % just a trick to deal with sign=0
B = diag(signs)*B ;
return ;
% To do.
% - Implement a cheaper/simpler whitening (is it worth it?)
%
% Revision history:
%
%- V1.5, Dec. 24 1997
% - The sign of each row of B is determined by letting the first
% element be positive.
%
%- V1.4, Dec. 23 1997
% - Minor clean up.
% - Added a verbose switch
% - Added the sorting of the rows of B in order to fix in some
% reasonable way the permutation indetermination. See note 2)
% below.
%
%- V1.3, Nov. 2 1997
% - Some clean up. Released in the public domain.
%
%- V1.2, Oct. 5 1997
% - Changed random picking of the cumulant matrix used for
% initialization to a deterministic choice. This is not because
% of a better rationale but to make the ouput (almost surely)
% deterministic.
% - Rewrote the joint diag. to take more advantage of Matlab's
% tricks.
% - Created more dummy variables to combat Matlab's loose memory
% management.
%
%- V1.1, Oct. 29 1997.
% Made the estimation of the cumulant matrices more regular. This
% also corrects a buglet...
%
%- V1.0, Sept. 9 1997. Created.
%
% Main reference:
% @article{CS-iee-94,
% title = "Blind beamforming for non {G}aussian signals",
% author = "Jean-Fran\c{c}ois Cardoso and Antoine Souloumiac",
% HTML = "ftp://sig.enst.fr/pub/jfc/Papers/iee.ps.gz",
% journal = "IEE Proceedings-F",
% month = dec, number = 6, pages = {362-370}, volume = 140, year = 1993}
%
% Notes:
% ======
%
% Note 1)
%
% The original Jade algorithm/code deals with complex signals in
% Gaussian noise white and exploits an underlying assumption that the
% model of independent components actually holds. This is a
% reasonable assumption when dealing with some narrowband signals.
% In this context, one may i) seriously consider dealing precisely
% with the noise in the whitening process and ii) expect to use the
% small number of significant eigenmatrices to efficiently summarize
% all the 4th-order information. All this is done in the JADE
% algorithm.
%
% In this implementation, we deal with real-valued signals and we do
% NOT expect the ICA model to hold exactly. Therefore, it is
% pointless to try to deal precisely with the additive noise and it
% is very unlikely that the cumulant tensor can be accurately
% summarized by its first n eigen-matrices. Therefore, we consider
% the joint diagonalization of the whole set of eigen-matrices.
% However, in such a case, it is not necessary to compute the
% eigenmatrices at all because one may equivalently use `parallel
% slices' of the cumulant tensor. This part (computing the
% eigen-matrices) of the computation can be saved: it suffices to
% jointly diagonalize a set of cumulant matrices. Also, since we are
% dealing with reals signals, it becomes easier to exploit the
% symmetries of the cumulants to further reduce the number of
% matrices to be diagonalized. These considerations, together with
% other cheap tricks lead to this version of JADE which is optimized
% (again) to deal with real mixtures and to work `outside the model'.
% As the original JADE algorithm, it works by minimizing a `good set'
% of cumulants.
%
% Note 2)
%
% The rows of the separating matrix B are resorted in such a way that
% the columns of the corresponding mixing matrix A=pinv(B) are in
% decreasing order of (Euclidian) norm. This is a simple, `almost
% canonical' way of fixing the indetermination of permutation. It
% has the effect that the first rows of the recovered signals (ie the
% first rows of B*X) correspond to the most energetic *components*.
% Recall however that the source signals in S=B*X have unit variance.
% Therefore, when we say that the observations are unmixed in order
% of decreasing energy, the energetic signature is found directly as
% the norm of the columns of A=pinv(B).
%
% Note 3)
%
% In experiments where JADE is run as B=jadeR(X,m) with m varying in
% range of values, it is nice to be able to test the stability of the
% decomposition. In order to help in such a test, the rows of B can
% be sorted as described above. We have also decided to fix the sign
% of each row in some arbitrary but fixed way. The convention is
% that the first element of each row of B is positive.
%
%
% Note 4)
%
% Contrary to many other ICA algorithms, JADE (or least this version)
% does not operate on the data themselves but on a statistic (the
% full set of 4th order cumulant). This is represented by the matrix
% CM below, whose size grows as m^2 x m^2 where m is the number of
% sources to be extracted (m could be much smaller than n). As a
% consequence, (this version of) JADE will probably choke on a
% `large' number of sources. Here `large' depends mainly on the
% available memory and could be something like 40 or so. One of
% these days, I will prepare a version of JADE taking the `data'
% option rather than the `statistic' option.
%
%
% JadeR.m ends here.